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The first opening of railways trunk in Kazakhstan took place 25th October
1894-after the construction of narrow-gauge line "Pokrovskaya svoboda" (now
days city Engels, Saratov region) - Uralsk. 130 km of this railway have
passed on territory of present Kazakhstan. 4 years later another
narrow-gauge line was opened Urbah-Astrahan', 77 km which also was
constructed over the Kazakhstan steppes.
For developing North region of Kazakhstan big value was the construction in
1891-1896 of Tran Siberian highways railroad, in particular, construction of
190 km over Kazakh territory. This road has played a huge role in economical
and cultural rapprochement of Kazakh and Russian people.
During 1901-1906 was constructed Orenburgsko-Tashkenskaya railroad which
connected Central Asia with Main Russia and the total length of rail truck
1660 km through Kazakhstan. In 1914-1917 was build Semirechinskaya truck
between Artys -Pishpek-and early part of Turksib, in 1915 -
Chelabinsk-Troisk-Kustanai (166 km on Kazakh land). In addition over
Kazakhstan land laid 122 km of rail track which was build in 1915-1917 in
Altai (Novosibirsk - Semipalatinsk). Moreover before 1918 functioned 117 km
of narrow gauge line Ekibastus - Ermak. Total amount of rail truck that was
constructed till 1918 reached almost 2.6 thousand kilometers.
The first railway of the Soviet period became the site constructed in
1920-1922 Petropavlovsk-Kokchetav. In connection with necessity of
development of deep regions of Kazakhstan and export of grain, it 1926-1931
is continued through stations Resort Borovoe and Akmolinsk up to Karaganda,
its general length has exceeded 700 km. In 1924 railroad line
Kalunda-povlodar has been build. Development of petrocrafts of Emba from
1926 was moved by narrow-gauge road Gurev-Dossor.
Epoch-making event became a construction of the Turkestan-Siberian highway
proceeded in 1927-1930 (Turksib) in the extent of 1444 km. It has connected
Kazakhstan with Siberia and promoted activization of economic development of
republic, development of many deserted grounds.
Great value for the industry of the central part of Kazakhstan regions was
Akmolinsk-Karahganda created in 30th, and Karaganda-Balkhash (490 km), for
the south - Chimkent-Lenger. The main role in development of the mining
industry of Altai has played the rail line constructed in 1930 Lokot-Zashita
(235 km), then continued up to Leninogorsk and Zaryanovska.
Per 1936-1939 the key regions which has connected Kazakhstan with the
Central Russia, - Uralsk-Ileck with an exit to Saratov.
During the Second World War has fully proved the strategic importance and
the highway constructed in 1936-1944 Gurev (Aturau) - Kandagach-Orsk,
binding petrocrafts of Emba with Ural and improved the supply between a
number of regions in Russia. The high importance of building Akmolinsk -
Kartaly in 1939-1943 was in particular, effective delivery of coal of
Karaganda to Southern Ural had great value. The same years sites Koksu-coal
Karaganda - Southern Ural. In same year was put in line Koksu-Talgykurgan
and Atasu-Karazhal. Extent of the Kazakhstan steel highways has reached 10
thousand km. The period of WW II is noted also by establishment on railways
of Kazakhstan of industrial base on repair of a rolling stock and traveling
Key event of post-war years became construction to 1950 of site Mointy - Shu
(440 km). Thus. the Tran Siberian highway has incorporated with
Turkestan-Siberian and the first meridian line which has been last through
all territory of republic - Tran Kazakhstan trunk-railway
Petropavlovsk-Kokchetav-Akmolinsk-Karaganda-Shu was formed. Also in 1953 one
of the important part of the South-Siberian highway - Akmolinsk
(Astana)-Pavlodar (546 km) which beginning of operation, in particular, has
created conditions for fast development of coal basin Ekibastuz and
adjoining regions is built. (Only for 1953-1956 the volume of
transportations in Northern Kazakhstan has increased in 4 times).
In connection with development of virgin lands in 1950th there was an
intensive construction of railways in northern and central regions of
Kazakhstan. During 1955-1961 line Esil-Arkalyk (224 km), 1959 -
Kustanai-Tobol, 1960 - Tobol-Dzhetygara is build. For 1950th the density of
a railway network of Kazakhstan was increased twice.
In July the 1st, 1958 was formed the biggest in USSR the Kazakhstan rail
road. Having extent over 11 thousand in km, it consisted from 15 branches
and united all latitudianal and meridian highways connections of Kazakhstan
with Siberia, Ural, the Volga region, Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia.
In 1960th additions to sites Makat - Mangyshlak and Mangyshlak-Uzen,
(general length almost 900 km), promoted are laid to development of deserted
edge. Revival of communications of Kazakhstan and Russia during this period
was promoted by intensive operation of the constructed line Gurev-Astrakhan.
In 1964 - for the first time in Kazakhstan - is electrified a site
Tselinograd (Astana)-Karaganda. From this moment starts the work on
electrification of railways - mainly in northern and central areas of
republic. In particular, during 1969-1970 all site between
Karaganda-Magnitogorsk (1180 km) is changed on electric draft. About 1980th
electrification was developed on southern highways: Moynty - Shu, Chengeldy
- Arys, Arys - Tylkubas. The general extent of the electrified lines has
come nearer to 4 thousand in km.
In April, 1977 on the based on Kazakhstan railway three roads have been
formed: Tselina, Alma-Atinskaya and Northen Kazakhstan.
All these years proceeded construction and reconstruction of tens new
stations, were put into operation new types of diesel locomotives, electric
locomotives, travelling technique, systems of the signal system and
communication, about 1980th automatics and information systems actively took
One of the remarkable facts of history of a railway transportation of
Kazakhstan: on February, 20th, 1986, for the first time in the world, on the
Tselina railway the rolling stock lead to 440 cars - by gross weight of 43,4
thousand tons and length 6,5 km.
From the middle of 1950th the big attention was paid to development of a
railway communication with the Chinese National Republic. In 1959 is
constructed a site Aktogai - Druzhba. In 1956-1960 from the Kazakhstan and
Chinese party took place the construction of the highways called effective
to connect railway of two countries was conducted. Works have restarted
after achievement of Soviet-Chinese agreements 1988. The joining which has
occurred in September, 1990 of railways has formed the boundary transition
which has connected the Kazakhstan station Druzhba with Chinese station
Alashankou. In a year on it movement of cargo structures has been opened -
has started Northern corridor of the Trans-Asiatic trunk-railway.
Accordingly, development of reloading capacities of frontier Kazakhstan
station Druzhba has begun. The further significant events in activity of
railways of republic have occurred already during the state independence of
Kazakhstan - since December, 1991
The way which has been passed by railway transportation of Kazakhstan for
the ten years' period of the state independence of republic and time of
existence of Advice on a railway transportation, it is possible to divide
into three stages conditionally.
The first period (1992-1996) - adaptation of branch to consequences of
disintegration of the USSR and essentially new economic conditions.
Essence of the second stage (1997-2001) became becoming and development of
first Kazakhstan railway enterprise RGP " Kazakhstan Temir Zholy", united in
itself three Kazakhstan highways, managed to overcome the crisis phenomena
and to put in pawn a basis for the further reforming branch.
The third period (since 2001 to the present moment) - marks the beginning of
reforming of branch. As a matter of fact, creation of Joint-Stock Company "
National company " Kazakhstan Temir Zholy " was the beginning of realization
of new reforms in branch. They, mainly, are directed on transformation of a
railway transportation of the country into the modern, highly effective
organism organically integrated into continental system of transportations
and capable as much as possible to correspond to requirements of clients in
conditions of the developed market competition.
Major landmark in history of the railway of Kazakhstan became 2004 - in it
to year of a steel highway of republic 100 years were executed.
All year has passed under logo of 100 years of the railway. In memory of the
great historical past of a steel highway and confirming to its not passing
importance for Kazakhstan, in it to year the largest projects on
construction and modernizations of railways, to development of social
sphere, working conditions and a life of railway men have been completed.
The beginning of anniversary started in February, 2004 when the meeting of
group of veterans of a railway transportation with the Prime minister of the
country Danial Ahkmetov took place. During a meeting the head of the
government has been informed on the decision of the Board of directors of
JSC "NC "KTZ" and the deserved veteran workers of the railway, to consider
2004 as year of century of the railway of Kazakhstan. For a reference point
of history of the railway end of construction of a highway Orenburg-Tashkent
extent length of 1668 km was accepted. From now on the railway branch began
to play an appreciable role in economic and social development of
Kazakhstan, has turned to one of factors of stability and safety.
The prime minister has approved carrying out of celebratory actions on the
occasion of the 100 anniversary of railway transportation and on March,
12th, 2004 has signed the corresponding Order. The idea of celebrating of
the 100 anniversary of the railway has met support and from the President of
Kazakhstan. On April, 30th Nursultan Nazarbayev has signed the Decree about
establishment of an anniversary medal in commemoration of celebratory date.
Within anniversary year to a medal have been presented over 4 thousand
workers of a railway transportation.
Year of century of the railway has coincided with carrying out in our
country of 19-th session of Conference of General directors of the
Organization of cooperation of railways with participation of heads of
railway administrations of 25 states of the Europe and Asia.
At presence of honored guests «100 years anniversary of the railway of
Kazakhstan », begun scale actions on celebrating anniversary of a steel
highway solemn clearing an anniversary stamp took place in Kazakhstan.
Year of century of the railway has been noted by outstanding achievements in
financial activity. Acknowledgement to that became increase of a long-term
credit rating of the company JSC "NC "KTZ" the International rating agency
"Moodies investment service" from "B+" to "B++" with the positive forecast.
The decision of experts was affected with successes in reforming area of a
railway transportation and constant improvement of industrial and commercial
parameters of activity of railway transportation.
On July, 1st, 2004 from Astana went traveling though the country the
anniversary train «Otan». About two months the train made stops at big and
small railway stations and travels of all regions of our immense country
during which passed celebrations on the occasion of the 100 anniversary of
the railway. The collective of a train has given special attention to
veterans and the best workers of a highway who in solemn conditions received
anniversary medals and memorable gifts from the JSC "NC "KTZ".
During a trip the extensive program of the social help to railway men and
members of their families has been realized: all interested persons have
passed medical survey in specially equipped cars, thousand first-graders
have received school bags with a full set of educational accessories; and
with small children sets of a children's feed have been handed over to
families. Have everywhere passed mass sports and cultural-entertaining
The trip of an anniversary train has received the most enthusiastic
responses from workers of the railway, and henceforth similar routes will be
The culmination of celebrating of century anniversary of the railway became
solemn assembly with participation of the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan
Nazarbayev which has passed in capital of republic on August, 6th, 2004.
In the performance the Head of the state has highly estimated a role of the
railway in becoming economy of Kazakhstan, strengthening of the state
independence, territorial integrity and social stability in the country. In
turn, railway men promised the President to realize the nearest years a
number of large projects in the field of construction and modernizations of
railways, release of competitive production for a railway transportation. On
November, 9th the Kazakhstan railway men have beaten a world record on
transportation of superbulky goods. From port Aktau on station Kulsary the
cargo which sizes are comparable to size of the four-storeyed house has been
It is transportation has demanded high professionalism of workers of all
divisions of the railway. And complex examination has been successfully
sustained! Station Arka. On November, 30th on this small object of the
railway it has been riveted attention of all mass media of republic. With
participation of the first persons of the state here there was openly
regular movement on new railway Altynsarin-Khromtau. The new line became the
largest project in the field of construction of the railways, realized for
years of the state independence of Kazakhstan.
This road has opened a way to trains in the western region of republic
passing transit on sites of railways of other states. The annual economy of
money resources due to operation of line Altynsarina-Khromtau will be 160
and more million of dollars, and reduction of range of transportation
various regions of Kazakhstan will reach from 500 up to 2 thousand
On the eve of celebrating Day of Independence of Kazakhstan before the
railways station of capital have been established a historical exhibit - a
steam locomotive of series ASh-4161. Made in metal "hero" of the first
five-years periods, WW II, post-war construction has taken place of honor
among other sights of capital of Kazakhstan, having immortalized the heroic
past of steel highways of Kazakhstan.
Passenger movement by rail Altynsarina-Khromtau was opened with a fast train
Astana-Aktobe. On December, 10th it has gone to the first flight on the
short route. Passengers of a train were pleasantly surprised not only due
reduction of time in a way at 15 o'clock, but also the cost which has
decreased twice of tickets. The site of the railway Pavlodar-Ekibastuz in
the extent of 132 kilometers became the largest project to sphere of
electrification of railways. Electrification of a site Pavlodar-Ekibastus
has allowed to use more economic and ecologically pure electric locomotives
that promises annual economy of means in overall more than one and a half
billions tenge and significant decrease in loading on an environment for
Station Dostyk on a joint of frontiers of Kazakhstan and China - a subject
of special attention of railway men. In 2004 the next record of
transportation of cargoes through station in quantity 9,5 million tons has
been reached. For modernization of capacities and infrastructures of station
in 2007 has been spent more than 3,5 billion tenge. Due to these means it
has been laid over 300 meters of a way, 64 jacks are established, the
operating item of rearrangement of cars is strengthened. On site
Dostyk-Aktogai 102 km of the top structure of a way owing to what became
possible increase the speed of trains on a line up to 80 km/hours have been
strengthened. For railway men and members of their families at station
Dostyk in it to year it has been handed over about 11 thousand square meters